Polarizer test

I used simple lamp directed to glossy table surface. One polarizer is in front of lamp and other is in front of lens of digital camera. Both polarizes are perpendicularly oriented to each other. How does this work? There is a theory about an angle on which the incident polarized electromagnetic waves turn reflects from surface with polarization plane turned in 90 degrees. When light going through polarizer towards the surface, the light is polarized in one direction and when it reflects from surface it is turned by 90 degrees and those waves are filtered by another perpendicular polarizer in front of lens.

Removing 60Hz from ECG using digital band stop filter

Let’s make a filter, which filters off the 60Hz frequency from ECG signal. As we know American power supply is 60Hz. This is common noise in biomedical signals, while they are powered from industrial power supply. This type of noise can be defined easily and can be filtered as parameters of noise are known. Here is one example of how to implement FIR filter using mathematical tools, like Matlab. This can be done by using microcontroller, like ARM or even ARM, because the frequencies are up to 1 KHz. Initial conditions: f0=60Hz – pover supply frequency; fs=500Hz – sampling rate; frequencies who define complex zeros: we get w0=0.754; Positions of complex zeros: Zeros and poles in z plane System Function From it we can calculate filter coefficients: And filter coefficients:         Also we know that: And here we get filter characteristics: We have band stop filter at 60Hz and …

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Imaging system with four different wavelengths obtained from LEDs

To evaluate skin pigmentation in different skin layers, there is special light adapter needed in order to take multispectral pictures of skin. As there are different optical properties of skin pigments,  4 different light sources have been chosen. blue λ= 470 nm – highly absorbed by epidermal melanin green λ= 576 nm – hemoglobin peak red  λ= 660nm – epidermal dermal boundary IR λ= 865 nm – low absorption, sensitive to scattering to measure papillary dermis thickness. There was lighting source for “Nikon Coolpix E3100” digital camera developed to take multispectral images of skin. Making adapter The drawing of  lighting adapter The lighting adapter isn’t very hard to build. You just need to make circular PCB and solder LEDs with protective resistors. The PCB image:

Skin reflectance spectra

According to earlier modeling description, there were skin reflectance spectra calculated for skin with most common properties: Melanin (volume fraction 2% in Epidermis); hemoglobin HbO2 and Hb (150 g Hb/liter ) and Thickness of collagen tissue in papillary dermis about 0.1mm.  

Skin Structure Diagram

Skin is very intelligent structure of our body. It is very elastic and pretty strong to protect inner tissue. It also acts as thermo regulator of our entire body protecting from overheats when we sweat and when there is cold – the blood flow is reduced to skin tissues to save heat to inner organs of body. Skin is pretty resistive to harmful chemicals, microorganisms and if dry it has high electrical receptivity. From biochemical side – skin can produce vitamin D when exposed to sunlight, which is essential for the growth and maintenance of our bones. The extensive network of nerves within the skin feeds information constantly to the brain concerning our surroundings. So it is full of sensors to know the external world like temperature, pressure. Don’t even let me start about skin importance in fashion industry. About how much there is attention paid to cosmetics, beauty shine. …

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